Free download Four Revolutions in the Earth Sciences: From Heresy to Truth ã PDF eBook or Kindle ePUB free

Free download Four Revolutions in the Earth Sciences: From Heresy to Truth

Free download Four Revolutions in the Earth Sciences: From Heresy to Truth ã PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB free Ê [Download] ➶ Four Revolutions in the Earth Sciences: From Heresy to Truth By Join or create book clubs – Over the course of the twentietEnces Kindle results from the chance collision of objects in space Most surprising of all we humans have altered the climate of an entire planet and now threaten the future of civilization This absorbing scientific history is the only book to describe the evolution of these four ideas from heresy to truth showing how science works in practice and how it inevitably corrects the mistakes of its practitioners Scientists can be wrong but they do not stay wrong In the process astonishing ideas are born tested and over time take roo. I have read this book and although Dr Powell does a good job explaining the development of three of the four revolutions I feel he has fallen short on the fourth revolution to wit Global WarmingClimate change As a geologist virtually none of my colleagues denies that there has been global warming I think Dr Powell does the reader a disservice by stating that the science is settled and that drastic action must be takenI find it puzzling that all of the models save one used by the IPCC to predict future temperatures way over shoot the mark There appears to be a correlation between rising CO2 and industrial pollution but I am not convinced of this The Keeling Curve tracking the rise in CO2 does not follow the observed temperature of the atmosphere This is aptly shown by looking at the satellite temperature data and also by balloon temperature data Although CO2 levels have risen by nearly 15 times the level since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution temperatures have not kept upTo me the central uestion we must answer is how much of the rise in temperature is man made and how much is natural And the same uestion must also be answered for Climate Change There is great uncertainty in these uestions At the present time WE SIMPLY DO NOT KNOW Until we can determine the magnitude of man made temperatureclimate change and natural temperature risesclimate change for any to assert the science is settled is hubris of the highest order Dr Powell oversteps the scientific bounds by asserting this

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Over the course in the MOBI #180 of the twentieth century scientists came to accept four counterintuitive yet Four Revolutions eBook #8608 fundamental facts about the Earth deep time continental drift meteorite impact and global warming When Revolutions in the PDF #203 first suggested each proposition violated scientific orthodoxy and was uickly denounced as scientific―and sometimes religious―heresy Revolutions in the Earth Sciences Kindle Nevertheless after decades of rejection scientists came to accept each theory The st. Excellent and fast shipping

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Four Revolutions in the Earth Sciences From Heresy to TruthOries behind these four discoveries reflectthan the fascinating push and pull of scientific work They reveal the provocative nature of science and how it raises profound and sometimes uncomfortable truths as it advances For example counter to common sense the Earth and the solar system are older than all of human existence the interactions among the moving plates and the continents they carry account for nearly all of the Earth's surface features and nearly every important feature of our solar system Revolutions in the Earth Sci. Jim Powell has written a welcome history of some of the most important and contentious ideas in science Almost everyone has heard of the topics he analyzes the age of the Earth and Moon plate tectonics the discovery that the Earth and Moon have been battered by cosmic impacts the impact extinction of the dinosaurs and global warming While these basic concepts are widely accepted by scientists there are still influential members of the public like politicians who love to expose their ignorance by answering uestions with “I am not a scientist” who oppose them Powell has written a lively history of these ideas and this book provides a welcome window into the basics of modern geosciencesThis book is than a good read; Powell has an important message for us He uses the sometimes tortured history to explore the basic uestions of how scientists decide what is correct – not absolute truth which is never possible but at least a consensus with a high level of confidence This is not a pretty history with many wrong turns and uite a few villains who refused to believe evidence that undercut their own pet ideas When the deniers held senior positions in universities or government agencies they were able to block progress for as much as a generation One motivation was an inherent distrust of outsiders especially the arrogant physicists who uestioned the geological consensus Another important factor in the first two case studies was the very small numbers of scientists who where working in a given field and the absence of real data with which to test theories In the second half of the twentieth century there are many researchers euipped with marvelous facilities and aided by powerful computers and communication among them is far easier than in the past Yet at a major international conference on lunar geology held shortly before the Apollo landing there was still virtual unanimity among those present that the lunar craters were volcanic and impacts had played little if any role in lunar historyThe most provocative discussion in Powell’s book concerns climate change and global warming The basics of the greenhouse effect and the role of atmospheric carbon dioxide in determining surface temperatures were established a century ago and by the 1970s a consensus was beginning to emerge about the role of industrial pollution in raising temperatures By the 1990s the direct evidence for global warming was pouring in and today it is impossible to deny the reality of large scale climate change But “scientific consensus” is a tricky concept In his earlier examples Powell documented cases of consensus in other areas of the geosciences that persisted for decades and then were overthrown by new discoveries sometimes coming from other fields of science Powell asks the important uestion whether this current consensus is any durable than some of the widely held misconceptions of the past This is our conundrum when we find ourselves in the midst of a scientific revolution Does heresy in science always give way to truth as implied in the subtitle to this book And how do we know when we have it right with enough confidence to take action to save ourselves from possible planetary catastrophe